At Lumina Learning we see the value in measuring both ends of a scale equally positively, avoiding the risk of evaluative bias prevalent in many tools.
One unique feature of the Lumina Spark questionnaire is that it measures both ends of each polarity separately. In contrast, most Jungian instruments ask questions such as “Do you prefer to go to parties or stay in and read a book?” This ‘forced choice’ means the learner must declare themselves as either extraverted (a party goer) or introverted (a book reader). This forced choice is in fact a false choice.
With Lumina Spark, learners are not expected to make a false choice. Each concept from both ends of the polarity is assessed by a separate question. Thus learners may choose to declare they like to go to parties and they like to stay in and read books (or neither). This is achieved using a five point Likert scale to provide the learner with more responses so that they can accurately express their views.
|Jungian / 4 measures||Big 5 / 5 measures||Lumina Spark / 10 measures|
|Introvert OR Extravert / I or E||Extraversion / E+ to E-||Extraversion E+ / Introversion E-|
|Feeling OR Thinking / F or T||Agreeableness / A+ to A-||People Focused A+ / Outcome Focused A-|
|Intuition OR Sensing / N or S||Open to Experience / O+ to O-||Big Picture Thinking O+ / Down to Earth O-|
|Judging OR Perceiving / J or P||Conscientious / C+ to C-||Discipline Driven C+ / Inspiration Driven C-|
|Typically not Measured||Neuroticism / N+ to N-||Risk Reactor N+ / Reward Reactor N-|
|Jungian Assumption||Lumina Spark / Big5 Latest empirical research|
|A total of four factors can be used to define personality. These four factors are 'bimodal', with an individual having to be at one end of the polarity i.e. an individual must be either an introvert or an extravert (and cannot be both).||A total of five factors are needed to define personality (not four). These five factors are not ‘bimodal’ but instead form a ‘normal’ distribution. Furthermore more modern research such as Tett's 'trait activation theory' suggests an individual could possess contrasting traits in different contexts and refute the over simplicity of typing. Lumina Spark assumes an individual can be both introverted and extraverted in different situations.|
|Each of the four factors has two polarities.
An individual is assigned to one of the polarities across each of the four factors. For some individuals this assignment is clear cut and they strongly associate with one polarity. However, for some individuals their score can be closer to the mid-point and the reading of their type is less clear.
Nevertheless, after this assignment, each individual can be located in a cell within a 4 x 4 matrix of 16 personality types.
|Within each of the five factors are sub-factors that Lumina Learning terms 'qualities'. Individuals can score anywhere on a continuum and the concept of 'type' as described by Jung is simply not empirically justifiable.
Forcing an arbitrary typing split in the middle of a normally distributed factor has the unintended consequences of damaging the test/re-test reliability of the sixteen types. Put simply, it is psychometrically unappealing for an individual to answer just one question differently in a questionnaire and then flip to become a different type.
|Of the four functions - sensing, intuition, thinking and feeling - the one that is 'dominant' is not determined by the highest score of the four, but instead by a calculation based on the additional judging and perceiving factor.
Furthermore, the judging and perceiving factor determines the order of an individual's eight Jungian attitudinal functions (yet this ordering has little empirical support).
|To determine the relative intensity of the five factors does not require a calculation based on the judging and perceiving scores. Instead, a simpler approach suggests the degree of preference an individual has for a factor is determined by the strength of their score in it.
Furthermore, rather than making unsupported assumptions about the order of use of different qualities, the intensity of each Lumina Spark quality in each of the three personas is measured directly and normed without the need for any complex assumptions.
Product Strategist, Moody's Analytics